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Hyderabad is a city, district and division in the Sind province. The city is an administrative headquarters lying on the most northern hill of the Ganjo Takkar ridge just east of the River Indus. Being the third largest city of Pakistan, Hyderabad is a communication center, connected by rail with Peshawar and Karachi.
Founded in 1768 on the site of the ancient town of Nirun-Kot by Ghulam Shah Kalhora, the saintly ruler of Sind, it was named after the prophet Mohammed's son-in-law, Ali, also known as Haidar. It remained the capital of Sind under the Talpur rulers who succeeded the Kalhoras till 1843 when, after the nearby battles of Miani and Dabo, it surrendered to the British, the capital was then transferred to Karachi.
Incorporated as a municipality in 1853, it is an important commercial and industrial center. Its economic activities include textile, sugar, cement, and hosiery mills, manufacturing of glass, soap, ice, paper, and plastics. There are hide tanneries and sawmills. Ornamented silks, silver-work, gold-work and lacquerware are also some of its exclusive products. Noteworthy antiquities include the tombs of the Kalhora and Talpur ruler, palaces of the former amirs of Sind. Newly developed settlements and industrial estates surround the congested old city area. An noteworthy characteristic of this city is, badgirs (wind-catchers) fixed to housetops to catch sea breezes during the hot summer season. A hospital, municipal gardens, zoo, sports stadium, and several literary societies are in the city. The University of Sind with 32 affiliated colleges was founded in 1947 in Karachi and moved to Hyderabad in 1951, where it lies across the Indus. Other education needs are served by numerous government colleges, the Liaquat Medical College and specialized vocational institutions.